Planning Aid for Scotland

Planning Aid for Scotland (now PAS) is a social enterprise that seeks to build active citizenship.

  • In 2022 Cliff was subcontracted by PAS to produce a report for Zero Waste Scotland on National Planning Framework 4 and the Circular Economy.
  • In 2007 Cliff worked with Kerstin Deuling from PAS to create SP=EED  as a practical guide to community engagement in planning. It has since been updated and continues to be used.

Welsh Assembly Government

  • In 2007 Cliff was sub-contracted by ECOTEC to contribute to a study on approaches to making national planning policy – international comparisons.

UK projects while at Heriot-Watt University

Cliff was part of research teams that delivered a number of practice-oriented reports for policy-makers. These include:


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